I sat across the table from a young student while perusing his semester reflection. “I don’t understand why we have to do this,” he said, “it’s just a waste of time, when I could be using the same time to write lesson plans or study for my classes.” Why bother, indeed, I thought. What was the point of the whole exercise?
Of course, I knew what the point of the exercise was, but how to get it across to my student, so he might learn to value the experience as much as he valued studying for his upcoming exams. I started by asking questions. What, in his experience, stuck out as a real success? What made that particular experience so successful? What did he do to create that experience? Were there other factors contributing to that experience? We continued to explore these and more questions in a short discussion. He came out of this armed with resolutions and plans, without even realizing that we had just completed an entire cycle of reflection. When I pointed this out to him, he began to understand that reflection is a tool, a means of improving his style teaching so that he can knowingly re-create successful experiences and be less dependent on coincidence.
There are many models one can use for self-reflection. At the university I teach at, the model our second-year students use is called Korthagen’s Circle of Reflection. Korthagen is a Dutch educational specialist who developed different models for reflection. Using the Korthagen’s Circle of Reflection, students systematically explore their actions in a given situation. This tool allows students to inform themselves about their own practice and make decisions about their future dealings.
1. Action: What did I want to attain? What was I trying out? What was I paying extra attention to?
2. Looking back: What actually happened (from the teacher’s perspective and from the perspective of the pupils)? What did we want? What did we do? What did we think? What did we feel?
3. Awareness: How are the answers (from the previous step) interconnected? How does the context (school) influence the whole? What does this mean for me? What is now the actual problem?
4. Alternatives: What alternatives do I see? What pros and cons are there to each one? What will I take with me for the next time?
5. Trial (step 1, but as a step into a new cycle): What did I want to attain? What was I trying out? What was I paying extra attention to?
When coaching my students, I tell them to choose one specific incident that occurred during the lesson or in the course of the day, and to focus on that. It can be something that went well, or something they want to improve, but it has to be one specific incident. I look at their reflection and check that each step has been taken. Sometimes, students skip a step or two, or stop when they are only halfway through. In order to achieve improvement in their teaching, however, I insist they complete the entire cycle of reflection. They groan, but they also grow, and they see that, too.
As a lecturer, I try to set an example for my students. I hadn’t thought a lot about how to set an example in the area of self-reflection, however, until I received a box of notebooks from my own dad, who had worked in the field of education for decades before changing careers. There were journals for each of the various positions he had held: as a teacher, a principal, a superintendent and later as a doctorate student. His journals are a collection of practical items (what needs to happen this week), reflections on incidents, personal goals and business strategies, among other things. Upon seeing his collection of journals, I decided that the best way to be a role model would be to start my own reflection journal.
When talking with my students, I teach self-reflection as a skill for life-long development. Sometimes, I show them my own journal, (briefly!) to depict self-reflection as a healthy habit. It’s not just something one does to appease the teachers that be, but it is also as a tool for steering their own growth. This revelation often comes as a surprise to them, and helps them understand how important it is to not just think about their teaching, but also to record it in some fashion, so they can refer back to it at a later time. They begin to view self-reflection as a valuable use of their time, and I, in turn, see their teaching improve as they move into greater awareness of their dealings.
Note: Factual information for this blog entry was retrieved from: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflectiecyclus_van_Korthagen