Month: February 2017

Deaf and Multilingual

deaf-and-multilingual

Available for purchase from http://www.lulu.com/shop/judith-mole/deaf-and-multilingual/paperback/product-3327972.html

A couple of years ago, I found myself confronted with something I’d never met up with before: a student who was hard-of-hearing, who needed to learn about teaching English as a foreign language.  I spoke with her translator, and soon found out that during my lessons the translator would be working in three languages simultaneously: English, Dutch, and Dutch Sign Language.  I determined to find out more about dealing with this student and her needs so that I might be able to support her in her journey through the world of teacher education.

Once started on this journey, I found a whole new world of communication I had never really thought about before, and made some interesting discoveries.  For instance, something that had never occurred to me before was the fact that sign language and spoken language are two separate languages.  Children who use spoken and sign language are actually bilingual.  Also, sign language differs from language to language (even between British and American English), complete with dialectal differences.  What an amazing discovery!

I searched the internet, and soon found the book pictured above: Deaf and Multilingual, an informative book written by authors with first-hand experience in the field.  It is a very practical guide for teaching a foreign language to deaf or the hard-of-hearing, and can be ordered via this site.  I ordered it and the minute it arrived, settled on my sofa with a cup of tea for what I hoped would be a useful read.  Needless to say, I was not disappointed.

The book starts by describing why deaf and hard-of-hearing learners might want to learn foreign languages.  Apparently, since communication with the “hearing world” in the mother tongue is often quite difficult, many make the assumption that teaching these learners foreign languages would be a waste of time.  However, these people have just as much a need to learn how to communicate as those who can hear, and foreign language learning helps meet that need.  There are, however, very real issues that these people have to deal with, and teachers can help meet those needs.

For instance, learners cannot just “lip-read” a new language, since the new sounds are created using unfamiliar lip patterns that need to be learned.  Also, they need to be able to see what they need to hear.  Every time the teacher turns to the board to write something down, the deaf learner can no longer see the teacher’s face, and so the communication comes to an abrupt halt.  Also, in classrooms where “smart boards” are in use, it is common practice to turn off the classroom lights so that the board is easier to see.  For the learner, the result is that the teacher’s face, again, becomes hard to see, making understanding that much more difficult.

Then there’s the challenge of divided attention.  Since these learners take everything in visually, they cannot read a handout and listen to the teacher at the same time.  They  have to choose what to do at that moment – read the handout or look at (listen to) the teacher in turns.

Taking part in group discussions is also quite the challenge for these learners, since it’s not always clear who is talking, and by the time they’ve located the speaker, they’ve already missed part of what was said.

There are simple things teachers can do to support these learners.   Here is a short list of things that can be easily implemented:

  1. Face the learner when speaking.  Speak clearly, but don’t exaggerate the sounds.  When writing on the board, stop talking.
  2. Allow for reaction time.  When giving directions, leave some time in between the various steps, as background noise (such as opening books) can make it more difficult for the hard-of-hearing to hear the instructions.
  3. Use visual support such as power points, posters, and handouts.  Make certain to allow time for reading these before carrying on with instruction.
  4. Make sure there is sufficient lighting.
  5. Cue the learner by pointing at the speaker during question-and-answer sessions or other group conversations.  This way, the learner can follow the communication easier.
  6. During group projects, allow the learner to work in pairs or in smaller group.

There are other things teachers can do as well, such as allowing the learner a copy of the teacher’s notes ahead of time, along with a detailed syllabus, so that the learner can come to class well-prepared for the lesson.

This book was an eye-opener for me, and I’m fairly certain I’m not the only one with questions about how to best support the hard-of-hearing or deaf learner in the English lessons.   However, it’s important to find ways to allow all learners to participate in an increasingly globalist society, now more than ever, and this book is a good step in the right direction.

 

 

 

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The ZPD, not just for kids

the-zone-of-proximal-development

How many of us have learned about the Zone of Proximal Developent (the ZPD) when learning how to teach our young learners?  I’ve written about this in earlier blog posts, in relation to how we teachers can best decide on what material to teach our young learners.  However, as a college teacher, I’m realizing more and more that the ZPD is just as applicable to our older learners.  For instance, I spend a good part of my lessons convincing my students that they don’t really have to follow the English textbook (in Dutch fittingly called the “method”) when they teach their classes. In fact, I often encourage them to write lessons of their own, based on the interests and language level of their classes.  The game of Minecraft, Disney’s Frozen, dinosaurs, it’s all fair play in the world of ESL as far as I’m concerned.

I’ve gotten used to the incredulous reactions of my students when I tell them to “try it, they’ll like it,” feeling every bit the Sam I Am in Dr. Seuss’ Green Eggs and Ham.  “Will you try this here or there?” I ask, and slowly but surely the students start to catch on to the excitement of trying out something they’ve never done before.  When needed, I scaffold their learning by giving ideas, working them out and providing search terms.  I encourage them to play, experiment, make mistakes, learn from them, and most importantly to try again.  I remind them of the rule of three: the first time one tries anything new, it’s a mess as the children struggle to learn the content and the new game at the same time.  The second time, the children have a better idea of how the game works, and the third time, the children know the way of the road and can concentrate on the content.

As stud3f26d2d4355d1d01edc2769a921a276dents start to navigate the roads of experimenting and teaching, they start to grow in confidence, and I follow along, ready to encourage them to move into the next zone of development, be that CLIL, using children’s literature in the lessons, or incorporating yet another new game into their teaching.

For myself, I realize that the ZPD is an ongoing development.  Not just for the young learners, and not just for my students, but also for me, an experienced ESL teacher.  New levels of development continue to reveal themselves to me a step at a time as I develop in my own teaching.  I keep that in mind while coaching my students, remembering that learning new things requires learners to let something else go.  They need to make a leap of faith, and I need to be there to catch them.  That’s what learning is all about: letting go, making that jump, trusting that one will be caught before the landing goes wrong.  It’s about making space for a certain amount of play: practicing something “for pretend,” before having to go out there and do it “for real.”   Sometimes, it’s a bit of a trick, getting students to understand the parallel between the lessons they follow and the lessons they teach, but on occassion I see one of them light up and I know they “get” it and how they can apply that learning in their own teaching.

It’s a humbling realization, I think, that we’re all learners, with our own ZPD to move into from time to time.  May we never stop growing and learning!