self-reflection

Encouraging teacher development

We teachers might like to think we know it all…… or we’re really uncertain about how to further our own development… or we’re looking for a way to improve our performance, but uncertain of how to go about it.  At the end of the day, there’s always a way to improve our teaching, and usually reason enough to do so, no matter how good one might already be in the teaching profession.

One way to direct our professional development as teachers is through the use of specialized teacher portfolios.  After an internet search, I found two different portfolios, each with a slightly different focus.

Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages:

This European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) focuses on concrete issues related to teaching, such as Context, Methodology, Resources and Lesson planning.  Below is a mind map of the topics covered in this portfolio.  There is the occasional  reference to cultural sensitivity, but most of the indicators refer to general teaching skills for a beginning teacher, with the emphasis on language teaching.

EPOSTL

Download here:  Teacher-portfolio EPOSTL-EN  

Portfolio for (Pre-) Primary Teachers of Languages

For more experienced teachers wishing to have a deeper look at their plurilingual and intercultural competences, there is another portfolio developed by the European Centre for Modern Languages.  The Pepolino portfolio was developed for teachers of pre-primary education, but it could be used for teachers in primary education as well, depending on your own starting situation.  There are a few indicators for general teaching skills, but also quite a few related to cultural sensitivity and diversity.  For teachers working in multicultural schools, this is an excellent way to test your own development in this area.

Pepelino

Download here:  Teacher-portfolio pepelino-EN-web

Both of these portfolios look really large – and therefore a bit daunting – as they are documents with no less than ninety pages each.  When embarking on using a pre-designed portfolio like this, therefore, it’s important to realize you don’t have to fill in all ninety pages, just the few that focus on the competences you wish to work on.  So look through it carefully, check what areas are going well already, and then decide what areas need your immediate attention.

Online possibilities:

The British Council has on online teacher’s skills assessment you can fill in to get a general idea of what you might work on, to improve your teacher skills.  Of course, this online assessment is linked to an online course (also offered by the British Council), which you can follow if you like.

The nice thing about portfolios is that they allow you to work on at your own pace, on areas that you’ve decided are relevant to your daily practice.  There’s a certain measure of self-evaluation involved, which means you need to look at yourself honestly: not too generously, but not too harshly either.  Whatever you do, be willing to confront yourself with the good, the bad, and the ugly, and realize that a good teacher is a growing teacher.

And have fun!  Because that’s what makes learning work well: a dose of enjoyment while working on our teacher skills.

 

 

Advertisements

Policy planning part 3: a plan of action

Now that you’ve created a complete picture of the language curriculum, it’s time to make a list of “Points of Action” for each section of the language policy.  Points of Action are things that need to be done, in order to realize the ideal English program.  These actions may be big or small, as long as they contribute to the end goal.  When you write a Point of Action, write it using the “SMART” method.  Make it Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-based.  If the Point of Action is rather large, you may wish to break it up into smaller, realistic steps.

For instance, a sample point of action might be “Teachers need more information on how to make better lessons.” When you write this, ask yourself: “What is better?  What kind of information do they need?  Why do they need this?” Clearly, this point of action is not SMART.  To make it SMART, make it more Specific: if the teachers want their lessons to be more interactive, for instance, with more student talking time, then the point of action can be adjusted like this: “Teachers need means to adapt their lessons to allow for more student talking time.”

This is still a very big point of action, which can be sub-divided into smaller, easily-attained tasks.  Think about steps like the following:

  1. Orientation:  what kinds of lesson adaptations are there?
  2. Examination:  trying out various lesson adaptations
  3. Evaluation:  talking about the effectiveness of the various adaptations
  4. Determination:  deciding which lesson adaptations to keep and which to let go
  5. Safeguarding:  making sure the new adaptations remain in place

Once you’ve checked (and double-checked!) your points of action, it’s time to put it all together into one, final Plan of Action.  Start by bringing the points from each chapter together into one summary, per heading (see illustration below).  Talk with your director and find out which points need to be an absolute priority, and decide on a logical order of steps to be taken.  Also, have a good look at the timeline.  How many years will be needed to realize the goals put forth in the policy plan?  Perhaps three is sufficient, but it’s also likely that more may be needed.

After that, set the points of action into the year-by-year overview.  Make sure that each point of action is attainable (not too big!), and part of the bigger plan.  Decide who will be responsible for each point of action, and plan a reasonable deadline for each point.  If money is needed, look at possibilities for subsidies from local and national agencies.  This will be different from place to place, of course.

steps-for-plan-of-action

Putting it all together: take the points of action from each list and put them in a single, simplified summary.  Then, sort the points into a year-by-year plan according to need.

Another important point of action that must be remembered is to evaluate the plan at some point every year.  Have a look at what goals were reached, which need to be amended, and congratulate everyone for any progress made.  After all, when it comes to curriculum improvement, it’s all hands on deck!  Everyone contributes in his own way, according to his own talents.

AllHands

Everyone contributes to curriculum improvement, according to his own abilities and talents.  (image borrowed from https://influencemagazine.com/practice/all-hands-on-deck)

 

Whatever you do while writing your policy plan, be aware that for some, simply opening up the conversation about the English program is already a big step.  For others, making space for each teacher to contribute to an improved program will be the challenge.  Each school has its own road to take in writing and carrying out a language policy plan.  So yes, please talk with other people who have written a plan and carried it out, but realize that each road is unique, with its own twists and turns.

So take a deep breath and …. good luck!

Exploratory action research: improving teacher practice

 

Every year, I guide my students through the process of conducting a small research project.  For them, it’s often the first time they’ve done anything of the sort, so it’s really important that my students understand the importance of learning not only how, but also why they need to learn how to do this.  After all, it’s not always evident why future teachers also need to be able to conduct experiments.

I start by introducing my students to a few articles from “Champion Teachers: stories of exploratory action research“.  My students read stories about experienced teachers who take the time to explore their own practice of teaching.  The teachers in this booklet each follow the same general process: they think about a situation in their teaching that they’d like to work on, and formulate a question they want to work on or a problem they’d like to explore.  They then go through the steps of collecting some basic data, for instance through observation, before moving on to make a plan of action.  Then, they carry out their plan of action, again observing and collecting data as they go.  Does the new idea work out?  If so, why?  Or otherwise, why not?  They think about what their findings will mean for their practice in the future, and then share their findings with others.  Research done in this way, remains formal enough to insure fairly reliable results, while making it informal enough that everyone can join in, with research questions relevant to the daily practice.  It gives educators a simple set of tools to structure their thinking and acting so that they can easily improve their teaching.

While reading the articles in this booklet, my students soon discover that teachers are never “done” with training and improving their practice as educators.  They also learn that research doesn’t have to be a big deal.  It can be a little deal, too.  What’s important is the underlying formalized, structured thinking that defines the difference between research and randomized efforts at self-improvement.  This sort of thinking can be learned, and that’s what I focus on when working with my students as future teacher practitioners.

One way I help my own students in formulating their thoughts about their research project is to employ an adaptation of “Shark Tank“, a reality television program in which entrepreneurs pitch their idea to investors in the hope of taking their product to the next level.  In my adaptation, the students work in small groups.  Each student presents his research project to the group.  The various members of the group then ask critical, open questions meant to help the student refine his plan and make his research question concrete.  After each student has presented his plan and answered all the questions, the group decides which plan was the best by awarding them “money” with which that plan can be carried out.  The winning plans are then presented to the entire class.  Plans that gain the least amount of “money” are presented to me so we can work on improving that plan one-on-one.

This form of co-operative learning was well-received by the students in my class.  Not only did it help everyone get their thoughts organized on this otherwise very daunting project, but they also learned to listen carefully to each other and ask thoughtful, open, yet critical questions in order to help each other.  It also helped create a feeling of connection between the students, as they support each other in their individual quests for development.  And that, in my view, is a very good thing.


For further reading on exploratory action research, a link to the booklet: “Champion Teachers: Stories of exploratory action research

To learn more about the “Champion Teachers” in general, please feel free to follow this link: https://englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/continuing-professional-development/cpd-teacher-trainers/champion-teachers-stories-exploratory-action-research

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/action-research?utm_source=twitter-google%2B&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=bc-teachingenglish

Teaching from the top-down: flipping Bloom’s taxonomy

download

How many of us have learned about Bloom’s taxonomy, back in the days we went to college?  Very likely, one learned to start teaching at the base: knowledge and comprehension, before moving on to the higher levels of application and analysis.  And maybe, just maybe the children would be clever enough to move on to the highest levels of thinking: evaluation and creation.

And oftentimes, that’s how it works.  We teachers design lessons along this bottom-up line: first words, then phrases, followed by sentences, finally ending in some form of cumulative project such as short dialogues or stories.  Then we start over in the next unit or theme.

Then comes the “what-if?” In this case: what if we started from the top?

What if we first presented our children with a problem to be solved, before giving them all of the building blocks needed to complete the cumulative project?

What if we tickled their imaginations with a product that needed to be created,  allowing them to provide input where they could, asking questions when they came to an obstacle?

bloom_pyramid-2

What would happen?

First of all, I suppose some children might feel intrepid or even anxious.  Often unused to the risk-taking involved in exploration, they would find themselves faced with an open field of possibilities in this new learning experience.

Secondly, I suppose we teachers might first feel a bit guilty for allowing children fall flat on their learner’s faces, sometimes more than once.  We might feel frustrated because our learners might be less efficient than we’re used to.  Especially the first time around, when everything is new, and everyone is getting used to the process of learning from the top-down.

But what else might happen?

Some children have been chomping at the bit for a chance like this, and will happily move into the space you created.  They will discover a new zeal for learning and might even propose some projects of their own to work on.  Instead of writing a letter to a pen pal in Europe, they might wish to write that same letter to an alien on Mars.  And what’s to stop them?

We teachers might discover that lesson planning changes to a more flexible set-up, so that we have space to address questions that pop up in the middle of the lesson.  We will need to plan more towards what the children need, and less towards our own desires.  We will have to ask ourselves, how to play into that field, so everyone is productively busy?  More importantly, we will need to know what the children already know.  Which children will need support when going into a new project, and what sort of support will they need?  Will they need didactic scaffolding during the lesson?  Or will they need more pedagogical support in the form of encouragement and coaching?

We also might find out that some children don’t do well with a flipped task at all.  Some cihldren really do thrive on a bottom-up approach.  However, we might find that once certain children get the hang of a top-down, problem-based approach, their learning takes off in ways we could only imagine before, allowing us to give our attention to those needing the extra support offered by the bottom-up approach to learning.  We might also find out that there are multiple ways to solve a problem, each with its own strengths and weaknesses.

Something else we might find out is that children start taking ownership of their learning.  But also that they need guidance from us, their teachers.  They need to learn to think about their own learning, to self-reflect.  They need to learn how to answer questions such as:

  1. What is the problem all about?
  2. What makes this an interesting problem?  What does it have to do with me, and my own life?
  3. What do I already know about this problem?
  4. What do I need to learn so I can solve this problem?
  5. What can I use to help myself?  Who can help me?
  6. How will I know when I’ve solved this problem successfully?  (what are the success criteria?)
  7. kwlimage

    K-W-L is one way to help structure children’s knowledge about a topic or problem.  It focuses on the lower-level thinking skills.  Blank forms can be found by googling “KWL form” (images).

This K-W-L chart can be expanded on a bit, with another example of the K-W-L form:

KWHLAQ-v2-tolisano

Recently, I tried out this sort of teaching with my own students.  I gave them a rather large, complicated problem for them to work on.  Each class had to make its own book of English lessons for the children they were teaching.  At first, they had no idea what they needed to do, but as the course developed, they started to make the connections between what I was offering them in class and the problem they had been given to solve.  Piece by piece, they each solved their part of the puzzle, resulting in some very interesting, challenging, out-of-the-box solutions.  At the end of the course, each class had its own book of lessons.  In the meantime, the students had developed a wonderful sense of professional creativity while creating their lessons, a wonderful side-effect of flipping the taxonomy.

For further reading, here are a couple of articles I found that deal with this idea in more depth:

http://plpnetwork.com/2012/05/15/flipping-blooms-taxonomy/

https://www.learning-theories.com/problem-based-learning-pbl.html

Feel free to have a read and find out more!

Mirror, mirror… why bother with self-reflection?

mirror-mirror

I sat across the table from a young student while perusing his semester reflection.  “I don’t understand why we have to do this,” he said, “it’s just a waste of time, when I could be using the same time to write lesson plans or study for my classes.”  Why bother, indeed, I thought.  What was the point of the whole exercise?

Of course, I knew what the point of the exercise was, but how to get it across to my student, so he might learn to value the experience as much as he valued studying for his upcoming exams.  I started by asking questions.  What, in his experience, stuck out as a real success?  What made that particular experience so successful?  What did he do to create that experience?  Were there other factors contributing to that experience?  We continued to explore these and more questions in a short discussion.  He came out of this armed with resolutions and plans, without even realizing that we had just completed an entire cycle of reflection.  When I pointed this out to him, he began to understand that reflection is a tool, a means of improving his style teaching so that he can knowingly re-create successful experiences and be less dependent on coincidence.

There are many models one can use for self-reflection.  At the university I teach at, the model our second-year students use is called Korthagen’s Circle of Reflection.  Korthagen is a Dutch educational specialist who developed different models for reflection.  Using the Korthagen’s Circle of Reflection, students systematically explore their actions in a given situation.  This tool allows students to inform themselves about their own practice and make decisions about their future dealings.

korthagens-spiralKorthagen’s Circle of Reflection has five steps, as illustrated here.  Each step has specific questions that should be answered as part of the reflection exercise.

1.  Action:  What did I want to attain?  What was I trying out?  What was I paying extra attention to?

2.  Looking back:  What actually happened (from the teacher’s perspective and from the perspective of the pupils)?  What did we want?  What did we do?  What did we think?  What did we feel?

3.  Awareness:  How are the answers (from the previous step) interconnected?  How does the context (school) influence the whole?  What does this mean for me?  What is now the actual problem?

4.  Alternatives: What alternatives do I see?  What pros and cons are there to each one?  What will I take with me for the next time?

5.  Trial (step 1, but as a step into a new cycle):  What did I want to attain?  What was I trying out?  What was I paying extra attention to?

When coaching my students, I tell them to choose one specific incident that occurred during the lesson or in the course of the day, and to focus on that.  It can be something that went well, or something they want to improve, but it has to be one specific incident.  I look at their reflection and check that each step has been taken.  Sometimes, students skip a step or two, or stop when they are only halfway through.  In order to achieve improvement in their teaching, however, I insist they complete the entire cycle of reflection.  They groan, but they also grow, and they see that, too.

As a lecturer, I try to set an example for my students.  I hadn’t thought a lot about how to set an example in the area of self-reflection, however, until I received a box of notebooks from my own dad, who had worked in the field of education for decades before changing careers.  There were journals for each of the various positions he had held: as a teacher, a principal, a superintendent and later as a doctorate student.  His journals are a collection of practical items (what needs to happen this week), reflections on incidents, personal goals and business strategies, among other things.  Upon seeing his collection of journals, I decided that the best way to be a role model would be to start my own reflection journal.

When talking with my students, I teach self-reflection as a skill for life-long development.  Sometimes, I show them my own journal, (briefly!) to depict self-reflection as a healthy habit.  It’s not just something one does to appease the teachers that be, but it is also as a tool for steering their own growth.  This revelation often comes as a surprise to them, and helps them understand how important it is to not just think about their teaching, but also to record it in some fashion, so they can refer back to it at a later time.  They begin to view self-reflection as a valuable use of their time, and I, in turn, see their teaching improve as they move into greater awareness of their dealings.


Note:  Factual information for this blog entry was retrieved from:  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflectiecyclus_van_Korthagen